Castor Oil Packs, Influenza (Flu), & Your Immune System

In 1918, the Spanish flu pandemic threatened the world population which was at about 1.8 billion people. 500 million people (about 1/3 of the population at the time) were infected. 

Mass graves had to be dug around the world as a result. Since then it seems we have been living in a state of fear and on high alert, for not IF but WHEN the next deadly mutated virus will hit again. 

The fear is even propagated and heightened because of our fixation; as evidenced in all the TV shows and movies about pandemics and zombie holocausts, like Outbreak with Dustin Hoffman, Contagion, and AMC’s The Walking Dead.  

Well that day may be here again, with the ever-increasing cases of the new death-causing coronavirus, where Canada is sending planes in, Britain is banning flights, the U.S. is on top of it all and for us, well, it’s time to do something about it. Differently, wouldn’t you say? 

Recent History

There have always been accounts of flu outbreaks. Remember SARS, the plagues of leprosy that stained faces, and those vanishing populations like the legendary Spanish flu of 1918?

The Spanish flu was the perfect example of what happens when a mutated virus meets malnourished, stressed, injured and inflamed soldiers, who jumped on boats at the end of the war to get home, and brought with them more than big hugs for their family – they brought the virus back to their homeland. 

These soldiers lived in less than sanitary conditions. Food options were limited to those that lined an aluminum can or those that were dried, requiring the simple addition of water (if you could find water, that is).

With limited hydration and good quality food the body suffers, plus add insult to injury of the severe mental stress that accompanies war-torn locations and PTSD, that many soldiers suffer from. I’m sure that not much can compare to living through that. Their physical bodies were wounded, inflamed and tossing and turning in their sleep. 

In essence, they were the perfect debilitate jalopy, the very best vehicle to propagate this deadly virus around the world. 

At home, many countries were ravaged by war, and once again, we see malnourished mothers and children who were stressed out and overworked. Trying to make ends meet and manage a household; the perfect receptacle to welcome the gift from their loved ones returning from war.

Likely to Get Sick | Conducive Conditions for Disease 

What conditions are ideal for diseases like influenza or the coronavirus to flourish in? Think of it this way; our body is no different than a garden, or an ecosystem.

This is contrary to popular belief where many define the body as a machine. A machine can get pieces taken out of it. An ecosystem cannot; when one aspect is ripped out, it can be devastating to the entire system. 

There is one thing that is notorious for throwing off the beautiful balance in the ecosystem of our body. This one thing is STRESS, and in our bodies, this causes the “dis” in dis-ease. 

Here are a few of the many possible types of stress:

  • Digestive stress
  • Nutrient deficiency stress
  • Inflammatory and immune stress 
  • Mental and emotional stress 
  • Microbial stress

The list goes on and on…

We know that when we are weak and devitalized from repetitive, non-ceasing stress we are more prone to sickness. This is why influenza typically affects elderly populations, children and those with “dis-ease” or immune-compromised conditions more often. 

Notice the spelling of “dis-ease”.

The meaning of the prefix ‘dis’ is a body or system that is not in balance.

This is the same as a garden. One that lacks proper nutrients in the soil, adequate sunlight, water, or love messages won’t grow and is likely to develop infestations and disease. 

It only makes sense that the Spanish flu reached such staggering proportions and infected 1/3 of the world’s population at the time.

The true epidemic, in my opinion, may not have been one of the virus, but rather the overall state of health of the population of the world at the time. 

How about them apples? They should have been eating more!…

It was World War I, after all. Living in that time would mean constantly feeling an inner sensation of imbalance, that the ‘dis’ could come upon us at any time, and stress became programmed into the makeup of our bodies. Stress was the norm, not the exception as it should be.

Why We Focus On The Bug 

You may be familiar with Louis Pasteur, who in the 1800s popularized the idea of The Germ Theory and made it mainstream. The bug (virus, bacteria, yeast, parasite, etc), became the enemy to attack. Kill it and life is good. It was widely accepted as the main tenet that permeates medicine to this day; including in cancer treatments with the bug being our own tissues. 

But what most aren’t privy to, is that at the same time, Claude Bernard was promoting and proving the terrain theory, or physical vitalism. He postulated that the body is an ecosystem and that an ecosystem in health, has a vital force and can beat all disease1.

The difference, it was said, was that Pasteur had friends in high places that moved his philosophy forward. These have served us well, as we have learned an incredible amount about the bug and how it affects an unhealthy body. On the other hand, vitalism went backstage once Bernard was out of the picture. 

However, there is hearsay that Pasteur, on his deathbed, recanted his theory and said: “Bernard was right, it’s not about the bug, it’s the terrain”.

Why We Should Focus on Terrain, Vital Force, and Physical Vitalism of The Body

The ancient doctors of the past, Hippocrates, Galen, and Traditional Chinese Medicine Doctors always searched for ways to support the system as a whole. They focused on the foundation, the pillars that would create health. 

This is the mechanism of wellbeing, of positioning for success in spite of what is going on around you.

You really can’t control what is happening around you but one thing is for sure, you can control what you do. 

A healthy, well-balanced body with a solid foundation is in the right position to overcome anything that may come its way. This was the work that Bernard was so passionate about. 

If you have ever seen a naturopathic doctor, functional medicine doctor, or any other holistic healer, this is the premise of their work. 

A resilient, strong, balanced foundation in the body prevents all disease. 

The reality is that it’s about both the bug and the terrain, and keeping them in balance. 

Balance means we want a little bit of acute stress, not longterm constant stress as that becomes damaging, but a little goes a long way2, because it is actually protective, especially to the digestive tract and gut. 

As Hippocrates stated:

All disease begins in the gut

How to Prevent the Flu (From a Functional Perspective)

Our goal then is to support the foundation, which begins in the gut. To keep the body and its foundation well supported every day so that it can be healthy. 

Here I introduce to you The Original Cleanse. The formula used by the ancient doctors who knew the vital importance of making sure that a system can:

  • Poop well
  • Sleep well 
  • Cleanse well
  • Bloat less and digest well
  • Stress less and feel well

The simplest of functions and by far the most important is to feel better and be resilient against anything that comes its way.


The Original Cleanse is the combination of two ancient, powerful, time-honored practices; the castor oil pack and castor oil sleep mask routine.

For U.S. Residents – Click Here!
Canadian Residents – Click Here!

The Doctors of the Past

Doctors of the past lived by this adage:

The doctor dresses the wound and God [nature] heals it.3

As such, they would use the simplest of therapies such as a compress in the areas that needed help, in order to invigorate the vital force within to heal! Just like you do with a bandaid for a boo-boo.

Why do you think it’s so natural to simply put a bandage on it, or wrap it up? It is literally instinctual to us that it will help us heal. This is why they call it The Original Cleanse. It’s part of our origin story. It is that which will help us regain faith in our healing. 

The fact is wearing a compress, such as a castor oil pack, eye mask or bandage, stimulates the receptors of the skin that transfer information to the nervous system to put the body into the relaxed state. 

The skin provides the ‘on’ switch to the relaxed state by promoting the hormone oxytocin4, which reduces cortisol (the stress hormone). 

So the reason soldiers in World War I were so susceptible to the Spanish flu, was simply that wounds (whether an actual wound on the skin, emotional wound, or a misbalance in the immune system), don’t heal under stress5. It’s an impossibility. The system needs a calm, relaxed state that is flooded with oxytocin6 to heal. 

Wounds occur when the “equilibrium between synthesis and degradation has been shifted toward degradation”7.

The Natural Law of Balance 

The body follows a natural law of balance, otherwise, dis-ease predominates. The Original Cleanse works on setting up the foundation so there can be balance and no dis-ease. It is the simple practice of wearing a castor oil pack and eye mask with castor oil to bed every night.

My first experience with the castor oil pack was transformational, and later clinical experience with thousands of patients proved the same result. And it’s why I’m here teaching everyone about them. 

For my patients and I, the first thing The Original Cleanse did was bring back FAITH in our ability to heal and feel better. It helped us to believe that balance could be achieved again, despite many failed attempts.

Very appropriately, I use the acronym FAITH to describe the five main foundations of health that castor oil packs support, which help to prepare it for any bug that comes its way. 

F: Function of the digestion, absorption, and elimination

Research demonstrates that castor oil enhances prostaglandins8, nitric oxide9 and stimulates capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons10 in the presence of acute glucocorticoids (the hormones of stress), which actually has a protective effect on the gastric lining, thus improving its function.

Castor oil can enhance defensive mechanisms such as gastric acid as well as digestive enzymes, that serve as a barrier for bugs entering the body.

Castor oil packs have been shown to improve the frequency of elimination11, and via prostaglandin stimulation of smooth muscle and nitric oxide electrolyte shifting, reduces food sensitivities thus relieving the immune system. 

A: Antioxidant support 

Castor oil is a source of vitamin E, omega 6, omega 9, and the end result of what you get from fish oils12. It has also been shown to preserve levels of one of our most important antioxidants, glutathione13, which is required for detoxification in the liver. Wearing a castor oil pack over the liver supports circulation and flow to this area, allowing it to cleanse more efficiently.

I: Inflammation & Immunity

Inflammation must be reduced in the body to make space for healing. Castor oil is a strong anti-inflammatory14 and wearing a castor oil pack is an excellent way to reduce inflammation in the digestive tract. Castor oil packs have also been shown to support white blood cells of the immune system15 which protect our terrain from the bug. 

T: Tension/Stress

Stress is another key factor that must be reduced in order for healing to take place. Castor oil packs create a gentle compression that helps to move the body into the parasympathetic state16 and that stimulates feel-good hormones like dopamine17 and oxytocin18. Wearing a sleep mask helps to further support the reduction of stress by improving sleep via melatonin production19.

H: Host Microbial Balance

As mentioned earlier, the terrain is just as important as the bug. Part of the terrain of the body is the trillions of bugs (microscopic bacteria), known as the microbiome. A healthy balance of good bugs and bad bugs is a key player in the balance of our digestion, hormones and immune system function. Castor oil packs support the microbiome by helping to breakdown biofilm created by bad bugs20 21 22.

The Original Cleanse for Physical Vitalism

The Original Cleanse is a nightly practice that only takes 2 minutes, and helps to strengthen and balance the terrain of our bodies so that they are prepared for the bug, should it come-a-knockin’.  

Here’s how to do it:

Step 1: Prepare your castor oil pack by applying 1-2 tbsp of oil in the center of the soft cotton side of the pack, then tie it onto the body over the liver.

Step 2: Pour a dollop of castor oil into the palm of your hand. Use an applicator brush to apply castor oil to eyelashes and eyebrows, then dab the remaining oil into the delicate skin around the eyes. Cover with the eye mask and go to sleep. 

That’s it! The Original Cleanse revitalizes, strengthens and balances your body as you sleep. Click the links below to get started now, with some special bonuses.

For U.S. Residents – Click Here!

Canadian Residents – Click Here!


1 Normandin S1. Claude Bernard and an introduction to the study of experimental medicine: “physical vitalism,” dialectic, and epistemology. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2007 Oct;62(4):495-528. Epub 2007 Jun 18. 

2 Filaretova LP.[Contribution of glucocorticoid hormones to gastroprotection]. Usp Fiziol Nauk. 2014 Jan-Mar;45(1):44-56.[Article in Russian]

3 https://irishwordsofwisdom.com/dr-joseph-murphys-prescription-for-self-healing/

4 Uvnas-Moberg K1, Petersson M.[Oxytocin, a mediator of anti-stress, well-being, social interaction, growth and healing]. Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2005;51(1):57-80.[Article in German]

5 Vileikyte L1. Stress and wound healing. Clin Dermatol. 2007 Jan-Feb;25(1):49-55.

6 Detillion CE1, Craft TK, Glasper ER, Prendergast BJ, DeVries AC. Social facilitation of wound healing. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004 Sep;29(8):1004-11.

7 Menke NB1, Ward KR, Witten TM, Bonchev DG, Diegelmann RF. Impaired wound healing.Clin Dermatol. 2007 Jan-Feb;25(1):19-25.

8   Sorin Tunaru,a Till F. Althoff,a Rolf M. Nüsing,b Martin Diener,c and Stefan Offermannsa,d,1 Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 5; 109(23): 9179–9184. Published online 2012 May 21. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201627109 PMID: 22615395

9   Mascolo N1, Izzo AAAutore GBarbato FCapasso F.Nitric oxide and castor oil-induced diarrhea.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jan;268(1):291-5.

10  Vieira C et al. .Effect of ricinoleic acid in acute and subchronic experimental models of inflammation. Mediators Inflamm. 2000;9(5):223-8

11   Arslan GG, Eşer I. An examination of the effect of castor oil packs on constipation in the elderly. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011 Feb;17(1):58-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2010.04.004. Epub 2010 May 18.

12  Marwat SK, Rehman F, Khan EA, Baloch MS, Sadiq M, Ullah I, Javaria S, Shaheen S. Review – Ricinus cmmunis – Ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities.Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017 Sep;30(5):1815-1827.

13   Holm TBrøgger-Jensen MRJohnson LKessel L.Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil. PLoS One. 2013 Nov 19;8(11):e79620. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079620. eCollection 2013.

14  Vieira C et al. .Effect of ricinoleic acid in acute and subchronic experimental models of inflammation. Mediators Inflamm. 2000;9(5):223-8

15  Grady H. Immunomodulation through castor oil packs. The Journal of Naturopathic Medicine. Volume 7 Jan 1 1998; 7(1): 84-9

16  Löken LS, Wessberg J, Morrison I, McGlone F, Olausson H. Coding of pleasant touch by unmyelinated afferents in humans. Nat Neurosci. 2009 May;12(5):547-8. Epub 2009 Apr 12

17   Rolls ET et all. Representations of pleasant and painful touch in the human orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices. Cereb Cortex. 2003 Mar;13(3):308-17.

18   Walker SC1, Trotter PD2, Swaney WT2, Marshall A3, Mcglone FP4. C-tactile afferents: Cutaneous mediators of oxytocin release during affiliative tactile interactions? Neuropeptides. 2017 Aug;64:27-38. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2017.01.001. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

19  Rong-fang HuXiao-ying JiangYi-ming ZengXiao-yang ChenYou-hua Zhang. Effects of earplugs and eye masks on nocturnal sleep, melatonin and cortisol in a simulated intensive care unit environment. Published online 2010 Apr 18. doi: 10.1186/cc8965

20   Andrade IM1, Andrade KM2, Pisani MX1, Silva-Lovato CH1, de Souza RF1, Paranhos Hde F1.Trial of an experimental castor oil solution for cleaning dentures. Braz Dent J. 2014 Jan-Feb;25(1):43-7.

21   Badaró MM, Salles MM, Leite VMF, Arruda CNF, Oliveira VC, Nascimento CD, Souza RF, Paranhos HFO, Silva-Lovato CH. Clinical trial for evaluation of Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite as denture cleanser.J Appl Oral Sci. 2017 May-Jun; 25(3):324-334.

22   Salles MM, Badaró MM, Arruda CN, Leite VM, Silva CH, Watanabe E, Oliveira Vde C, Paranhos Hde F. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis – a randomized clinical study.J Appl Oral Sci. 2015 Nov-Dec; 23(6):637-42.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome and The Microbiome | Part 1

The microbiome is the HOT topic in medicine and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). But what does this mean to you? Is it the key to alleviating your IBS? I suggest our fascination with the bugs in our guts, is a situation of history repeating itself and may lead patients and practitioners down a slippery slope of chasing the unseeable bug. There is a way to look at what is happening to you, not from the bug perspective but from one that empowers you and helps you transform into the life you’re meant to live. Read below and get your gut-reset on! 

What is the Microbiome?

Our bodies are made up of 10 trillion cells, and inside our gut we house 100 trillion foreign microbes that take up residence right next to our most important immune warehouse and the organ system that gives us life through digestion, absorption, and elimination1.

What Does the Microbiome Do? The Good

These microbes of various origins play important key roles in processing metabolites from drugs and foods, metabolites that our body secretes and they create their own metabolites that, in general, have beneficial effects on our bodies. They can supply us with short chain fatty acids like Butyrate, well known for its healing of the gut2

What Does the Microbiome Do? The Bad

Due to our lifestyle choices and exposures, sometimes this hub of so called ‘health’ as claimed by the researchers, works against us instead of for us. As in the case of irritable bowel syndrome, where the balance of beneficial bugs is outweighed by their disease-promoting counterparts. Researchers elucidate to the microbiome being the UNIFYING aspect of the promotion of irritable bowel syndrome3. I beg to differ, it is JUST ONE of the factors of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). 

Probiotics – The Beneficial Bugs – The Good Guys

For simplicity sake, let’s call the good guys probiotics, since many of you are familiar with the product you buy to give your body good bugs. In reality, the researchers call the good guys commensal bacteria. These guys help us immensely, they are bacteria of different strains that help our bodies by making B vitamins and other amazing substances to keep our guts good4

Conbiotics – The Disease Promoting Bugs – The Bad Guys

The not-so-nice ones, I call conbiotics™. I coined this term because my understanding is that they act much like con artists in our bodies. They take up residence in places that are troubled, because they like to cause trouble too. Like attracts like. Usually it’s in a disturbed digestive tract, preferring environments that are filled with inflammation, histamine, oxalates, heavy metals and other toxins like poop sitting in our intestine too long.

They are typically present with food sensitivities, and the ultimate villain of them all a dis-stressed gut. A great example of this is after you take antibiotics. They kill both good and bad bacteria, but makes the intestine hospitable to conbiotics5

The Environment Decides who Lives There

So this shows us that the residents of the gut are dependent on the circumstances that are going on in our bodies. They are affected by our emotional wellbeing or lack thereof, our food choices, what drugs we take, our system’s ability to digest, absorb and eliminate and much, much more. 

WHY is our Health Placed in the Hands of Bacteria?

So what I don’t understand then, is why do we give our power away to the bug? Why don’t we own that it is us that may be off, us that isn’t doing the things that promote health and because of that the bugs that are growing are bad causing things to go awry within. These bad bugs going hay wire is simply in response to our bodies aiming to seek balance, not the other way around, where they give us balance. 

If we seriously own it, that the environment of our gut is caused by us, we can take actions to truly do something about it. And not allow history to repeat itself. 

Louis Pasteur

Portrait of Louis Pasteur

You may or may not be familiar with Louis Pasteur. He was a French scientist and the father of the germ theory6, also considered the father of immunology7. His entire life, delved first into the crystallization of wine, to fermentation processes, to development of the bug theory and finally vaccines. His belief and scientific perspective held central the idea that it was the bug that caused all disease. He was successful in promoting the message because he was a publicly well seen figure. 

Claude Bernard

At the same time another more meek French scientist was studying parallel to Pasteur. His deductions were different. Claude Bernard came to realize that it wasn’t the bug but the environment of the body, as he called it “the liquid millieu internal” , also commonly referred to as the terrain, that makes it hospital for the bug to survive. Bugs and germs are smart as well, they go where their survival is guaranteed and where they can multiply. It is best for them to multiply in unhealthy areas. Where the ENVIRONMENT SUPPORTS THEIR HEALTH!!!!! How ironic.

Environment that Supports Health 

Portrait of Claude Bernard

Because Bernard’s study of the human system physiology was quite impressive, he was well known for his animal experiments on the gut and intestine8. His message wasn’t visible because it is the phenomenon of a living creature. This is the part, in effect, that we really truly can’t do studies on. It definitely isn’t as easily visible through a microscope as Pasteur’s work was. 

Pasteur was also much more charismatic and simply more of a socialite that knew how to promote his message. Claude Bernard’s message got lost and didn’t make it to the forefront of scientific thought of the time. The environment that supports health died, and the bug won.

H. Pylori Infection from a Germ Theory Perspective

Pasteurs theories became embedded in the modern scientific thought of the day, and become the norm, even today. H. Pylori is one example of a bug well known to be the “cause” of peptic ulcers9, which according to the germ theory makes sense. In our common language we all talk about catching a cold, a virus, or a bacterial infection. Microbes and bacteria are easy to see under a microscope and because of that it’s very easy to believe it is true. 

H. Pylori Infection from a System Biology, Millieu Perspective

Had Bernard lived to see the H. Pylori situation, he would have explained it differently. That because of an acidic millieu, the stomach acid in the digestive tract doesn’t function optimally, therefore allowing for an infection of H.Pylori to set in. You see, it isn’t the bug that caused the ulcer, it was the imbalance in the physiology that allowed the infection to occur.

Why the Germ Theory Won – History Repeating Itself

Let’s face it, it’a a lot easier to blame a bug, than to trace back through the steps of the physiology to figure out why the infection happened in the first place. We are always looking for the easy button, but in health and sciences, unfortunately it’s not the easy way that prevails. That’s a recipe to be chasing after a bug for your entire life, never getting anywhere and always suffering. Isn’t the definition of Hell repeating the same thing over and over again? You can choose that path if you want, but I decided a long time ago it wasn’t the path that made sense to me. 

Had Bernard got his way, we would be singing a very different tune. One of understanding how the body works, of tuning in to the signs and taking responsibility for ones health. Pasteur just put the blame on the bug and promoted that until his death.

Pasteur on his Death Bed Recants – It’s Not the Germ, It’s the Terrain, Bernard was Right

On his death bed, Pasteur was said to have had an epiphany. He realized that all along Bernard was RIGHT! So he recanted, history tells us his words were “Bernard was right, it’s not the bug, it’s the terrain!” 

By then it was too late, the wheels were deeply ingrained in thought of the time that it was all about the germ theory and there was no going back. The sequence of events following that led us to where we are today, bringing the bug back into the forefront of science. Blaming the bug, (well now its bugs because of the 100 trillions of bugs in the microbiome) for everything bad that happens with our health.

You Know What’s Right, Just Listen to your Body

I do not want you to recant on your death bed, or have regrets that you should have headed the warning signs. That internally you knew that it couldn’t be only about the bug. I remember, the gut punch I got when I first heard about addressing the balance of the systems and the terrain, searching for homeostasis, instead of the bug. A light bulb so big shone in front of my eyes, I knew inherently it was the way to go with health.  

I’m not saying here if you need an antibiotic for an infection not to take it. By no means! What I’m saying is to look at your body as a whole, there will be times you need that antibiotic and you better take it! There is no bad medicine, just a bad time and a place for it. 

Stay tuned for Part 2 next week where we talk probiotics, fecal transplants and how to reset your terrain for healthy bugs!

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References:

1 Chen CC1,2,3, Chen YN1,2,3, Liou JM1,2, Wu MS1,2; Taiwan Gastrointestinal Disease and Helicobacter Consortium. From germ theory to germ therapy. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2019 Feb;35(2):73-82. doi: 10.1002/kjm2.12011.

2 Wuwen Feng,1 Hui Ao,2 and Cheng Peng1,3,* Gut Microbiota, Short-Chain Fatty Acids, and Herbal Medicines  Front Pharmacol. 2018; 9: 1354.PMID: 30532706

3  Yogesh Bhattarai,1,2 David A. Muniz Pedrogo,1,2 and Purna C. Kashyap1,2 Irritable bowel syndrome: a gut microbiota-related disorder? Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017 Jan 1; 312(1): G52–G62PMID: 27881403

4 LeBlanc JG1, Chain F2, Martín R2, Bermúdez-Humarán LG2, Courau S3, Langella P4. Beneficial effects on host energy metabolism of short-chain fatty acids and vitamins produced by commensal and probiotic bacteria. Microb Cell Fact. 2017 May 8;16(1):79. doi: 10.1186/s12934-017-0691-z.

5 Blaser MJ1. Antibiotic use and its consequences for the normal microbiome. Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):544-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9358.

6 Berche P1. Louis Pasteur, from crystals of life to vaccination. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Oct;18 Suppl 5:1-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03945.x. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

7  Smith KA. Louis pasteur, the father of immunology?. Front Immunol. 2012;3:68. Published 2012 Apr 10. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2012.00068

8  Noble D1. Claude Bernard, the first systems biologist, and the future of physiology. Exp Physiol. 2008 Jan;93(1):16-26. Epub 2007 Oct 19.

9 Borges SS1, Ramos AFPL1, Moraes Filho AV2, Braga CADSB1,3, Carneiro LC3, Barbosa MS1,3. PREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN DYSPEPTIC PATIENTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CLINICAL RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPING GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA. Arq Gastroenterol. 2019 Mar 18. pii: S0004-28032019005001103. doi: 10.1590/S0004-2803.201900000-03. [Epub ahead of print]