The Connection Between Addiction and Anxiety

I’ve seen a lot in the media lately about Demi Moore, as she recently released her memoir, Inside Out, where she candidly shares her struggles with addiction, failed marriages, and sexual assault in her teen years.  I’ve always admired Demi for her boldness and authenticity.

I vividly remember her famous Vanity Fair cover in 1991 where she posed naked while seven months pregnant (see my rendition below, pushing out with a bloat-baby instead!).  Her nudity sparked controversy, but I believe that her courage in allowing this iconic and beautiful photo to run on the cover made changes in the way society viewed a pregnant woman’s body. 

She is making waves again, as she courageously writes about some very important issues in her memoir, specifically substance abuse and addiction.  When people think of the word addiction, they often think of drugs and alcohol, but this isn’t always the case.  We can become addicted to anything (gambling, sex, food, etc.) and no matter what the addiction is, it can be just as dangerous and destructive.  

I became inspired to share a bit about my own story and patterns that I’ve seen in clinical practice with addiction.  It’s something I believe we all struggle with at one point or another in our lives whether we realize it or not, and it’s important that we talk about it, understand it and see the gifts in it, in order to heal.

And before you dive in, I encourage you to sign up for The Anxiety Summit by clicking here. This is a free 7 day online summit that I will be speaking on from November 11-17. 

My Personal Struggle with Addiction

I have an addictive personality, and I know I’m not alone.  Throughout my life I’ve struggled with strong addictions to sugar, coffee and cigarettes.  They owned me, ruled my every thought, commanded my life.  For me, it wasn’t only being addicted to something that was the problem, but the substances themselves were actually part and parcel of the problem.  

Caffeine and nicotine are stimulants of the nervous system and I’m naturally an easily excitable person with a predisposition to anxiety.  These substances served their purpose to make me feel “normal”, which for me at the time was being in an anxious state.  They also affected my digestion negatively.  They made me poop like a champ which felt like a godsend, coming from a history of having constipation. 

But these loosey-goosey poopies were because my gut was being irritated by my addictions.

Starting my day off with coffee and a cigarette was the worst thing I could be doing.  Initially, they made me feel great and alert (like the energizer bunny) but would amp up my anxiety to the point I was running away like Piglet from Winnie the Pooh.  It became so bad I was having insomnia and severe panic attacks where I thought I was literally dying. 

One time, I remember curling up in a little ball on the floor, hyperventilating with my arms and hands all in spasms.  If you’ve ever experienced a panic attack, you know it can be life altering and you’d do anything to prevent it.

Beyond my addictions, there was a part of me that felt completely out of tune.  I was wrestling with my integrity as a person.  I was in school in my third year of naturopathic medicine, closet-smoking on my balcony.  I felt like such a hypocrite… This was not who I wanted to be.  I knew I needed a way out, but it felt impossible since I was self medicating to cope with all of my stress. 

It kept me from socializing and going out to events with friends because once I had a cigarette, I smelt like it and I didn’t want to be labeled a fraud.  The only issue is that you can run from others’ judgement, but it’s pretty hard to run from what you think of yourself.

I couldn’t keep running; there was nowhere to hide.

Understanding the Connection Between Addiction & Anxiety

Addiction and anxiety co-exist and co-create with each other.  I refer to them as two peas in the infinity loop pod.  Which came first?  Was it anxiety, then the addiction?  Or did the addiction bring on the anxiety?  Often times, we’re addicted to things that make us increasingly anxious, and those things that we are addicted to deplete our nutrient profile, so the anxiety gets worse.  It’s a vicious cycle.

What we do know is that they always go hand in hand, there is a psychopathology associated with anxiety and addictive disorders.  The remarkable thing is that both have the ability to evolve us into something greater than we are today.  There are gifts within these chains, if we choose to accept them.

What Does Anxiety Feel Like?

You have felt the sheer terror of anxiety, like I have (and most other people at some point in their lives).  The overwhelming sensation of pressure on your chest and your heart beating so fast it feels like it’s exploding out of your body.  It’s difficult to take a deep breath, and there’s a tingling, numbing sensation in your hands, mouth, chest…  A pressure in the back of your neck…

Everyone tells you to take deep breaths, but you simply cannot.  You feel oxygen deficient, like the air around you is empty.

If you have ever felt like you’re unable to control the sensations in your body, you know anxiety.  The ultimate perception of not being safe and feeling a total loss of control.  It can completely stop you in your tracks. 

If this is all too familiar to you, sign up for The Anxiety Summit (Nov. 11-17) for free by clicking here.

A Visceral Reaction

Anxiety extends far beyond your mental state, as it can disrupt your digestion completely.  Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is often accompanied by anxiety (no surprise here). 

Do you find when you are anxious, you lose your appetite and simply can’t eat?  Or perhaps you have a tendency to overeat to calm the butterflies in your belly?  Some people experience loose stools while others have an inability to have a good bowel movement and let go. 

The sensation of anxiety, as with all things that are uncomfortable, comes bearing a gift.  It’s basically stress that’s been taken up a notch, with roots in future-thinking.  You feel that you’ve lost control over what will happen in your future, and gloom and doom is the predominant theme.  Those of us with a tendency towards anxiety, like myself, possess the gift of being incredibly intuitive.  We feel when things are not right around us, we feel when there is unrest.  We have this uncanny ability to feel what others cannot.  What we choose to do with these feelings is what will either elevate us… Or crush us. 

What Is Addiction?

Addiction is so hard to break for many of us because in its primordial form, its essence is that of self-care.  It is an instinct, one that is incredibly strong in some people because of genetic predisposition, exposure to addiction or trauma at a young age, or simply primordial impulse. 

Instinct is raw!  It is the evolutionary emotional commands from the limbic system situated in the hypothalamic pathway in the middle of our brains.

Addiction is often fed by feeling uncomfortable in your own skin and how you’re living. It’s a form of self-care that allows instant gratification.  You don’t feel good and you know that, so you search for the easiest and quickest fix.  This is very normal.  This is how we have evolved and survived through treacherous times, by listening to what we need.  We look for the path of least resistance and take the easiest way out.

The 3 Categories of Addiction

1. Substance Addiction

When we talk about addiction in general, a chemical or substance addiction like cigarettes, alcohol or drugs is often assumed.  The reality, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) is that addiction has three faces, substance addiction being the first.

2. Food Addiction

Beyond substances, the second category of addiction is food.  The search for high-calorie, low-nutrient foods with sugar, salt and fat is programmed into our brains.  It’s a primal evolutionary advantage – feed, so as not to famine.  In the modern day, we no longer have this need, but food engineers work hard to make their foods as addictive as possible. 

Have you ever heard yourself say, “I can’t open the package because I will eat it all”?  For example, think of chocolate.  It contains sugar, fat and psychoactive substances from the cocoa bean, a perfect recipe for addiction and wanting more.  Addiction to food is rampant and you are not alone – we’re in this one together. 

3. Behavioral Addiction

The final category is behavioral addiction.  This form includes exercise, internet-use, sex, work, gambling, and more.

What is intriguing is that all of these faces of addiction could technically be considered under the umbrella of substance addiction, since the neurobiological effect and the neurotransmitter pathways stimulated within our bodies, are all the same.

The Addiction Anxiety Infinity Loop

According to Freimuth et al, tolerance is where the addict keeps on increasing the substance, food, or behaviour, to receive the desired effect that gives them their “high”.  Withdrawal is where, with the lack of their addiction, they start to desire it more and more.  They become obsessed with the thought of procuring it, they need their “fix”.  This brings on the feelings of restlessness, irritability, sleeplessness and anxiety.  

This is why anxiety and addiction are linked together in the infinity loop.  The addiction produces the anxiety, and the anxiety fuels the addiction.  My thoughts are that another unknown part of the affliction may actually be an addiction to the state of being anxious.  I know for me, that was my “natural” state in the past, as I grew up in a home with great anxiety.  I became conditioned to the addiction anxiety loop, it was my “normal”, I knew nothing else.

Intuition Within

As mentioned before, having a tendency toward anxiety actually holds a gift within, if we choose to see it this way.  When something isn’t right, we feel it in our gut, in our digestion.  This feeling is our intuition.

Intuition is important as it elevates us to our higher selves.  When we learn to listen, it guides us to a state of safety, balance and being in flow.  It guides us through our emotions and sensations, A.K.A. “gut feelings”.  It could be a nervous feeling that comes with a new decision.  It could be a strong confidence when we make a choice that “feels” right.  You intimately know when something feels right or wrong; you can feel it in your gut.  So do you listen?  Or do you suppress these sensations with stress, or by numbing your feelings?  Do you take quiet time to really listen to your intuition or do you simply keep on “doing” and not “being”? 

Your addictions are instinctual, whereas your anxiety is a call from your higher self, your INTUITION.  Your anxiety elevates and increases the less you listen to your higher self, which only serves to perpetuate the cycle of addiction.

 Channeling Your Intuition

The way towards channeling your intuition is through: 

  • Quiet reflection
  • Meditative practices and gratitude practices, such as with the Grateful Dung™ Bracelet
  • Limiting the amount of anxiety-promoting substances, foods, and behaviours in your life
  • Using calming and connective essential oils such as those in Eau de Throne
  • Getting restful, good quality sleep with regular nighttime rituals, like your Beauty Sleep Eye Kit
  • Improving your digestion (the gut is where we feel it the most) this can be supported with castor oil packs

Over time, you become truly become in tune with your needs.  Intuition can be curated and cultivated from your anxiety.  It is truly a diamond in the rough! 

Your intuition shows you the best, brightest path, the yes and no; it moves you towards enlightenment.  Your instincts move you towards immediate safety or prevention from harm such as “I’m starving, there must be a famine!  I should eat everything in sight right now!” 

This differs from your intuition which says, “This is all I need right now; this will nourish my body and make me feel well”.

End the Epidemic 

In my practice, I see more constantly anxious people than any other health condition.  It’s an epidemic and one of the reasons why our digestive systems are so damaged.  Anxiety creates a major cascade of stress hormones via the adrenergic system, such as adrenaline in the short term and cortisol in the longterm.  These are constantly pumping through our veins, especially for those with digestive issues like IBS.

To this day, I need to mind my tendency to slip into a “normal” state of anxiety.  I have to work at it and be very disciplined with my quiet practices.  If anxiety is all you have ever known as your normal, you will seek to maintain that level of normalcy.  That’s just human nature because that is your comfortable spot.  But this just opens the door for addiction, whether your vice is sugar, alcohol, food, work or sex, or maybe all of them.  Not only will you get the ill effects of the substance, but also the ill effects of the anxiety that is superimposed over the addiction.

It is important to understand these connections and do everything in our power to change our environments and get in touch with our intuition, that we may live a fulfilled, joyous life, free of addiction and chronic anxiety.

All of the products discussed in this article are included in the Queen Kit, click here.

SPECIAL NOTE:  I would absolutely love for you to sign up for an online summit that I am a part of by clicking here. The Anxiety Summit is is a free 7 day online summit that I will be speaking on from November 11-17.


Disclaimer: Any opinions, advice, statements, services, offers, information or content expressed or made available by third parties, including information providers, are those of the respective authors or distributors. Neither Queen of the Thrones™ nor any third-party provider of information guarantees the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any content. This communication does not create a doctor-patient relationship. Information provided does not replace the advice of your health care practitioner. If you happen to purchase anything we promote, in this or any of our communications, it’s likely Queen of the Thrones™ will receive some kind of affiliate compensation. Still, we only promote content and products that we truly believe in and share with our friends, family and patients. If you ever have a concern with anything we share, please let us know at care@drmarisol.com. We want to make sure we are always serving Our Kingdom at the highest level.  

How to be more Mindful | Body-Connection Movement

Consciousness is the greatest gift that we have ever been given. You may not even realize it, but it’s probably the most important thing that we have, our most valued possession, that separates us from other mammals, blue blooded reptiles, birds, plants and all other beautiful living things created by the source of life. 

Consciousness is like having the great big white light flow through our bodies. It is a gift from the divine, the ability to utilize our senses to look, feel, smell, taste, hear, intuit, and turn all of those exquisite, brilliant sensations into ideas that then can form into reality. 

Consciousness is about thinking about the possibility of what can be. As Stephen Covey states in The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People:

“Everything is created twice, first in your mind and again in reality.”

That is the power of consciousness and awareness. 

 

Without conscious thought, we would still be living in the Savannah hiding out in caves without all of the incredible modern advances that we have now. So please, don’t spoil or waste this gift that we all have inherited. 

Instead, I want to encourage you. If you have been feeling disconnected, alone, isolated, or unsure of what your body is doing, like it’s working against you and not for your greater good… I want you to lean into this and take the lessons from it so you can become the best that you can be. All it takes is time and practice. 

Practice what? You may be asking.

 

Mindfulness Practice: Body-Connectedness

Thoughts can become your reality (whether you’re thinking about good or bad). So when we want a positive reality, we need to think about these positive thoughts more often. We want to train our mind to observe what our body is telling us, and then have our mind think of what we want more often. 

This is how we can become conscious and connected to our body. This is the reason why the very first thing I teach people in my clinical practice is: “What does your poo say about you?”. It’s because this serves as the first and easiest step to developing your body-consciousness. Not in an obsessive or unhealthy way either, but in a way that allows and observes… Plus pooping is something that you (hopefully) do everyday.

To create a habit or practice, it needs to be repeated daily1. I like the term body-connectedness; there’s no negative connotation as there may be with body-consciousness.

So let’s start a body-connection movement, where we learn how to listen and interpret all of the beautiful and important messages that our body gifts us. Let’s move on, because as they say, the proof is in the pudding.

What is Body-Connectedness? 

It is the ability to be aware of what is going on in our bodies. 

You wouldn’t believe how many people are so disconnected. I was, and sometimes still am. You have been, and sometimes you still are. How do I know this? Because I am not only an examiner of popular culture, but I am also a naturopathic doctor; I have intimate connections with the inner workings and understandings of my patients and this is where I see a major gap. 

Especially when they first come in to see me. 

It’s a constant job. Directing our thoughts into our awareness, and frankly, many of us are not highly skilled or trained.  Quite the opposite actually… We are highly distracted and disconnected. 

Being disconnected goes something like this:

  • You block the gut feelings that you get
  • You avoid feeling what is happening in your body, mind and soul by distracting yourself with habits and addictions (such as drugs, booze, food, sex, and anything else you can think of – disrupting your ability to have awareness and create new habits2)

Having body-connectedness bring us back to our beginning. Our root and our core feelings are an understanding of what the signs and symptoms our bodies are telling us. 

Because as Oprah’s favorite author, Maya Angelou, says:

“When you know better, do better.”

Many of us are walking around not knowing.  It’s time to get in the know of your body. It is your one and only temple gifted to you along with your consciousness. 

Let’s find out what the messages are that we receive from the body… The signs and symptoms.

What is a Symptom 

From a medical perspective, I see patients and ask them how they are feeling.  When they recount what is going on, they are telling me about their symptoms. 

Symptoms are like storytelling about your daily life experience and how you are feeling in your body. These symptoms are super valuable, and it’s important to become aware, conscious, and connected to what is occurring in your body. 

Examples of symptoms include:

  • Exhaustion
  • Brain fog
  • Sadness
  • Difficulties pooping
  • Cravings
  • Itching
  • Sleep issues
  • B*tchiness

The list goes on! These are all expressions of what is going on within the body.

What is a Sign

Signs are not so much our experience but rather what you or someone else could objectively see. 

Examples of signs include:

  • Acne
  • Itchy and inflamed skin
  • Bloated belly
  • Loose stools
  • Trembling or shaking

My job on this earth is to help you have body-connectedness and to put it in socially relatable words. As Ace of Base said, “I saw the sign” you should also be seeing your signs daily.

So What Does This Mean To Us?: Your Next Steps 

It means let’s take the first step in the “I love me” department and learn what your body is trying to tell you. Let’s learn how to connect to it and become conscious of the cries for help and the love letters it sends us.

Download my guide the 50 Shades of Poo, and begin this journey. The very first and best way to learn about your body is in the most crucial of functions: your poo. 

It isn’t number 2, but rather the number 1 product that your body produces and as such it’s the gateway to body-connectedness. Plus, it’s accessible and it’s easy to measure all of its characteristics.

 

So it’s time to show up in your skin and learn the signs that your body is showing you. Show up, take notes, and learn what you can do about it. 

Life, after all, is a journey of discovery and you are in charge of the direction that you go in.

Xoxo


Disclaimer: Any opinions, advice, statements, services, offers, information or content expressed or made available by third parties, including information providers, are those of the respective authors or distributors. Neither Queen of the Thrones™ nor any third-party provider of information guarantees the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any content. This communication does not create a doctor-patient relationship. Information provided does not replace the advice of your health care practitioner. If you happen to purchase anything we promote, in this or any of our communications, it’s likely Queen of the Thrones™ will receive some kind of affiliate compensation. Still, we only promote content and products that we truly believe in and share with our friends, family and patients. If you ever have a concern with anything we share, please let us know at care@drmarisol.com. We want to make sure we are always serving Our Kingdom at the highest level. 

1 Knowlton BJ1, Patterson TK2. Habit Formation and the Striatum. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2018;37:275-295. doi: 10.1007/7854_2016_451.

2 Renteria R, Baltz ET, Gremel CM. Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts top-down control over basal ganglia action selection to produce habits.Nat Commun. 2018 Jan 15;9(1):211. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-02615-9.

Natural Solutions for Breast Health | Breast Cancer Awareness Month

In honor of Breast Cancer Awareness Month, I was inspired to write a quick article about some natural solutions for breast health. I think we’ve all been affected by breast cancer in some way, shape or form. We see celebrities who have struggled with it, like Olivia Newton John, Christina Applegate, Sheryl Crow, Julia Louis-Dreyfus, and Melissa Etheridge. My own mother had it, and a friend of mine too, who beat it twice (I will share more about them in this article).

It’s becoming an epidemic and so important that we are educated, aware and know how to prevent it as well as recognize the signs.

 My Breast Journey

I used to look at my breasts in the mirror, pulling one up and comparing it to the other.  I would wish so hard to have perky, stand-up-here breasts instead of pendulous, way down-there-puppies with sparkling, multicolored stretch marks. 

Weight changes and overnutrition in my youth never gave me the opportunity to have perky, perfect breasts.  Instead, I went from flat to fat and then stretched out to swinging and saggy.  

 

Breasts define our femininity in many ways, we feel sexy because of them and un-sexy in spite of them.

I recall getting intimate with my husband and being so ashamed to get naked in front of him.  I apologetically told him I needed to be honest with him and tell him that my tits sagged, instead of being heralds of fertility and proud of them with pomp and circumstance.  I felt deflated because of them just like they were deflated. 

Turns out he didn’t care. He actually knew, and had been staring down my top for a while and loved what he was seeing – without me knowing!  Sly dog. 

Why Are Breasts Such a Big Deal? 

Breast are bold, they stick out from our bodies.  They are the first thing that enters the room, the first thing in many cases that get noticed. 

Men obsess about them, maybe because they have mother and latching issues, or maybe because they just adore the difference between male and female bodies.

Whether you think your breasts are too large or too small, they are a source of shame for many.  It’s time to take this inappropriate thought pattern and shove it where the sun don’t shine.  It’s our time to be proud of all of our shapes and sizes and stretch marks.  Be proud of the pleasure they bring us, from foreplay to feeding our babies.

Breast Judgments 

My first encounter with the dangers of judgments made on breasts wasn’t my own, but actually my mother’s.  When she was a dashing young lady, she had gone to the doctor’s office to have her yearly check-up and breast exam. 

Upon taking off her shirt to be examined, the doctor gasped at how large her breasts were (super inappropriate FYI, in this day and age but this was back in the 60s).  My mother, being incredibly shy about her sexuality, was immediately embarrassed, turned red as a lobster and searched to get dressed immediately.  

 

 

So shocked was she by this judgment that she never had another breast exam again, until it was too late. 

Judgments can damage our psyche, we don’t know how our words will fall on the ears receiving them.  Judgments serve no purpose either, except pain.  After all, no one asks the doctor to comment on how large they are, but rather how healthy they are. 

My Mother’s Breast Cancer 

Forty years later, my mother waited until blood came out of her nipple and a mass so large it was hard to avoid, came cauli-flowering out of her breast.  With two doctors as daughters, we couldn’t believe that she had let the shame of an event that happened so long ago, impact her life now. 

The diagnosis – stage 4 breast cancer.  Devastating, with little to no time to act. 

Because of this experience, I got over my breast bullsh*t and got into owning one of the most beautiful, female, flourishing features of my health. 

Importance of Breast Exams 

For this reason alone, every single woman in my naturopathic practice gets a yearly breast exam, done by our skilled naturopath assessment hands. 

 

 

But some of us don’t have access to a doctor who is experienced or willing to do a breast exam, especially since now the recommendation is to avoid breast exams. 

In countries where breast cancer is diagnosed at advanced stages, it is valuable to have patients understand breast self-examination as well as to be examined1.

So this is extremely valuable.  My mother was fortunate, even though she was at the extreme case, she survived with a combination of surgery, radiation, chemotherapy as well as naturopathic medicine.  Her cancer was so far advanced that it was an impossibility to only do the natural route. 

Self-Examination Is Invaluable 

The comment I get in clinic time and time again is that most women don’t know what normal feels like.  They feel that their breasts are lumpy and bumpy (a sign of estrogen dominance, or low iodine). 

But let me tell you, the first time I did a breast exam I thought exactly the same thing!  How was I going to identify anything going wrong if I can’t notice anything different? 

Do you know what changed it?  Practice, my friends, practice the mother of all skills. 

So I just love, love, love what my friend and colleague Dr. Véronique Desaulniers, two-time breast cancer survivor and preacher to the people, has done to make this easy. 

She has created “My Breast Friend”, a breast self-examination tool.  It’s basically a model of the breast so you can be your own best doctor. 

And what if you find lots of lumps and bumps?  Make your way to your doctor and get checked out.  It never hurts to be extra cautious. 

Prevention of Breast Cancer 

There are many things you can do at home now to help reduce cystic and lumpy breasts. Most of these strategies deal with reducing the amount of estrogen in your body. 

 

  1. Eat more broccoli family foods (cruciferous veggies)2 
  2. Reduce your alcohol intake3 
  3. Reduce your theophylline intake, in coffee, tea and chocolate 
  4. Wear a sleep mask to bed – they naturally increase melatonin which is a powerful anti-cancer hormone in the body4
  5. Of course, do your castor oil pack daily, because it helps with cleansing and detox5, microbiome balance8, inflammation9, and stress reduction10 11, which all impact your hormonal balance.

 

So get to know your boobies!  I know I’ve got saggy tits, and sometimes they really do look like sacks!  But I love them because they are me 100% and I get to know them regularly so I can keep them a part of me for the long haul.  They are my twins after all, and I can’t get another pair just like these (no judgment if you’ve had yours changed, just love!).

Do you know the difference between then and now?  Now I love my breasts, I treat them better every single day because I have learned that they are an important part of who I am.  They share my story. 

So get My Breast Friend today, to help you get to know your lovely lady lumps on your chest.

 

 

I also want to share a quick recipe with castor oil for boob and lymphatic health. Castor oil has a long history of use for breast cancer.  In fact, Hippocrates, known as the father of modern medicine was advocating it as a treatment in 460 BCE, as was another medicine man of the time, Galen in 200 BCE12.

Castor Oil for Breast Health and Lymphatic Health

  1. Mix organic castor oil from a GLASS bottle with baking soda until it becomes a paste
  2. Add 2-3 drops of organic rosemary essential oil 
  3. Rub into your armpits and over your breasts
  4. Leave on for an hour or more then rinse off

Disclaimer: Any opinions, advice, statements, services, offers, information or content expressed or made available by third parties, including information providers, are those of the respective authors or distributors. Neither Queen of the Thrones™ nor any third-party provider of information guarantees the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any content. This communication does not create a doctor-patient relationship. Information provided does not replace the advice of your health care practitioner. If you happen to purchase anything we promote, in this or any of our communications, it’s likely Queen of the Thrones™ will receive some kind of affiliate compensation. Still, we only promote content and products that we truly believe in and share with our friends, family and patients. If you ever have a concern with anything we share, please let us know at care@drmarisol.com. We want to make sure we are always serving Our Kingdom at the highest level.

 

1 rev Med. 2011 Sep;53(3):118-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.05.001. Epub 2011 May 8. The role of clinical breast examination and breast self-examination. Miller AB1, Baines CJ.

2 Kendra J. Royston, B.S.1 and Trygve O. Tollefsbol, D.O. Ph.D. The Epigenetic Impact of Cruciferous Vegetables on Cancer Prevention. Curr Pharmacol Rep. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 Feb 1. Published in final edited form as: Curr Pharmacol Rep. 2015 Feb 1; 1(1): 46–51. Published online 2015 Jan 25. doi: 10.1007/s40495-014-0003-9

3 Terryl J. Hartman,1 Julia S. Sisti,2,3 Susan E. Hankinson,2,3,4 Xia Xu,5 A. Heather Eliassen,2,3 and Regina Ziegler6 Alcohol Consumption and Urinary Estrogens and Estrogen Metabolites in Premenopausal Women. Horm Cancer. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 Feb 1. Published in final edited form as: Horm Cancer. 2016 Feb; 7(1): 65–74. Published online 2016 Jan 4. doi: 10.1007/s12672-015-0249-7

4 Giuseppe Di Bella,1,* Fabrizio Mascia,1 Luciano Gualano,2 and Luigi Di Bella Melatonin Anticancer Effects: Review Int J Mol Sci. 2013 Feb; 14(2): 2410–2430. Published online 2013 Jan 24. doi: 10.3390/ijms14022410

5 Holm TBrøgger-Jensen MRJohnson LKessel L.Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil. PLoS One. 2013 Nov 19;8(11):e79620. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079620. eCollection 2013.

6 Andrade IM1, Andrade KM2, Pisani MX1, Silva-Lovato CH1, de Souza RF1, Paranhos Hde F1.Trial of an experimental castor oil solution for cleaning dentures. Braz Dent J. 2014 Jan-Feb;25(1):43-7.

7 Badaró MM, Salles MM, Leite VMF, Arruda CNF, Oliveira VC, Nascimento CD, Souza RF, Paranhos HFO, Silva-Lovato CH. Clinical trial for evaluation of Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite as denture cleanser.J Appl Oral Sci. 2017 May-Jun; 25(3):324-334.

Salles MM, Badaró MM, Arruda CN, Leite VM, Silva CH, Watanabe E, Oliveira Vde C, Paranhos Hde F. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis – a randomized clinical study.J Appl Oral Sci. 2015 Nov-Dec; 23(6):637-42.

9 Vieira C et al. .Effect of ricinoleic acid in acute and subchronic experimental models of inflammation. Mediators Inflamm. 2000;9(5):223-8

10 Walker SC1, Trotter PD2, Swaney WT2, Marshall A3, Mcglone FP4. C-tactile afferents: Cutaneous mediators of oxytocin release during affiliative tactile interactions? Neuropeptides. 2017 Aug;64:27-38. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2017.01.001. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

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